Science and Cosmology


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  • For more general treatments of science and cosmology, see Anindita Niyogi Balsley's "Cosmology and Hindu Thought," Zygon 25, no. 1 (1990): 47–58.
  • For specific connections between Purāṇic and medieval scientific discourse there are two excellent resources: W. Randolph Kloetzli's "Maps of Time—Mythologies of Descent: Scientific Instruments and the Puranic Cosmograph," History of Religions 25 (1985): 116–147; and David Pingree's "The Purāṇas and Jyotihshāstra: Astronomy," Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (1990): 274–280. Rory Fonseca's "Constructive Geometry and the Shrī-Cakra Diagram," Religion 16, no. 1 (1986): 33–49, is helpful with mathematical treatments of the cosmos.
  • Also see Chris Minkowski's recent "Astronomers and their Reasons: Working Paper on Jyotishastra," Journal of Indian Philosophy 30, no. 5 (2002): 495–514; and his "The Pandit as Public Intellectual: The Controversy of Virodha or Inconsistency in the Astronomical Sciences," in Axel Michaels, ed., The Pandit: Proceedings of the Conference in Honour of Dr. K. P. Aithal. Heidelberg, 2001, pp. 79-96.
  • For more contemporary philosophical treatments, see Anindita Niyogi Balsley's "Cosmos and Consciousness: Indian Perspectives," in Science and Religion in Search of Cosmic Purpose, edited by John F. Haught (Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 58–68; and Karl E. Peters's "Cosmology and the Meaning of Human Existence: Options from Contemporary Physics and Eastern Religions," Zygon 25, no. 1 (1990): 7–122. Jayant Viṣṇu Narlikar's basic scientific writings include The Primeval Universe (Oxford, 1988) and Seven Wonders of the Cosmos (Cambridge, U.K., 1999).